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Higher Education       

Princeton University (1997–2004)

Ph.D. in Philosophy, January 2004; dissertation: "Leibniz freed from every flaw: a Kantian reads Leibnizian metaphysics"; advisors: Béatrice Longuenesse and Bas van Fraassen

M.A. in Philosophy, 1999

University of Oxford, St. Hilda’s College, Visiting Student in Physics and Philosophy (1995–1996)

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (1992–1997)

M.A. (Magister Artium) in Philosophy, Physics, and Psychology; M.A. thesis: "Einbildungskraft bei Kant"



Primary Academic Appointments

New York University, Professor of Philosophy (2022–present)

New York University, Associate Professor of Philosophy (Spring of 2015–2022)

University of Pittsburgh, Associate Professor of Philosophy (2011–Fall of 2014)

University of Notre Dame, Assistant Professor of Philosophy (2004–2011, tenured in 2011)

University of Notre Dame, Instructor in Philosophy (2002–2004)

Other Appointments

Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophy, Co-Editor (2022–present)

NYU Department of Philosophy, Director of Graduate Studies (2019–2020)

NYU Department of Philosophy, Director of Graduate Studies (2016–2018)

University of Pittsburgh, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Secondary Faculty (2011–2014)

University of Pittsburgh, Center for Philosophy of Science, Resident Fellow (2011–2014)

University of Notre Dame, Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values, Faculty Fellow (2005–2011)

University of Notre Dame, Nanovic Institute for European Studies, Faculty Fellow (2004–2011)

Princeton University, Student Assistant in Instruction (1998–2000)

University of Bonn, Student Assistant (1993–1995)



What Do We Owe Other Animals? A Debate, with Bob Fisher, in the series Little Debates about Big Questions, edited by Tyron Goldschmidt and Dustin Crummett, New York: Routledge (2023)

The World According to Kant—Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism, Oxford University Press (2021) [List and correction of Errata]

Reviewed (in chronological order) in:

Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 103 (4):764-769 (2021) by Ekin Erkan

Metascience 1 (1):33-36 (2022) by Jessica Wilson

European Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):858-861 (2022) by Tim Jankowiak

Philosophical Quarterly 73 (3):847-849 (2022) by David Gordon

Con-Textos Kantianos 16:257-261 (2022) by Lara Scaglia

The Philosophical Review 131 (4):511-514 (2022) by Markus Kohl

Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):160-162 (2023) by Pat Kitcher

Kant-Studien 114 (4):822-827 (2023) by Christian Onof

(Thanks much to the reviewers for taking the time to read and write about the book!)

Articles and Chapters

“Précis of The World According to Kant,” and “Intentional Objects and Experience―Reply to Allais, Kohl, and Stang,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming)

“Kant’s Critique of the Ontological Argument―Comments on Ian Proops’s The Fiery Test of Critique," Kantian Review (2024, ahead of print)

“The Labyrinth of the Continuum: Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant on Matter and Monads,” in Karl Schafer and Nicholas Stang (editors), The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant’s Metaphysics and Epistemology, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press (2022), 185–216

“Kant on the (Alleged) Leibnizian Misconception of the Difference between Sensible and Intellectual Representations,” in Brandon Look (editor), Leibniz and Kant, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press (2021), 177−210

“Finite Minds and Their Representations in Leibniz and Kant,” in Sally Sedgwick and Dina Edmundts (editors), Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus/International Yearbook of German Idealism (2019), 47−80

“The Synthetic Nature of Geometry, and the Role of Construction in Intuition,” in Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca, and Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant Kongresses 2010 in Pisa, Volume V, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter Verlag (2013), 89–100

“Kant, the Leibnizians, and Leibniz,” in Brandon Look (editor), The Continuum Companion to Leibniz, London/New York: Thoemmes Continuum Press (2011), 289–309

“Disentangling Leibniz’s Views on Relations and Extrinsic Denominations,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 48.2 (2010): 171–205

“Leibniz on Motion—Reply to Slowik,” The Leibniz Review XIX (2009): 139–147

“Leibniz on Motion and the Equivalence of Hypotheses,” The Leibniz Review XVIII (2008): 1–40

“The Modal Strength of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles,” in Dan Garber and Steven Nadler (editors), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy IV, Oxford/New York City: Oxford University Press (2008), 191–225

“Kant’s Critique of the Leibnizian philosophy: contra the Leibnizians, but pro Leibniz,” in Dan Garber and Béatrice Longuenesse (editors), Kant and the Early Moderns, Princeton: Princeton University Press (2008), 41–63 (and 214–223 notes)

“Must Empiricism Be a Stance, and Could it Be One? How to Be an Empiricist and a Philosopher at the Same Time,” in Bradley Monton (editor), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas van Fraassen, Oxford/New York City: Oxford University Press (2007), 271–318

Other Publications

Entries on ‘Amphiboly’ and ‘Receptivity’, in The Cambridge Kant Lexicon, edited by Julian Wuerth, Cambridge University Press (2021)

Entries on ‘Anschauung a priori’, ‘Anschauung, formale’, ‘Rechnen’, ‘formal’, ‘Anzahl’, ‘Algebra’, ‘Addition’, ‘Erkenntnis, mathematische’, ‘Gerade’, ‘Linie’, ‘Anzeige des Lambertischen Briefwechsels’, ‘Lambert, Johann Heinrich’, in Kant-Lexikon, edited by Markus Willaschek, Jürgen Stolzenberg, Georg Mohr, and Stefano Bacin, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter (2015)

“Review of Kant’s Moral Metaphysics, edited by Benjamin Lipscomb and James Krueger, de Gruyter, 2010,” in The Philosophical Review 122 (4) (2013): 651–657

In Preparation

The Mind According to Kant—Thought and Cognition in Kant’s Critical Philosophy (companion volume to The World According to Kant)

“Schopenhauer’s Pessimism,” for the new Cambridge Companion on Schopenhauer, edited by Sandra Shapshay and Colin Marshall

“Does Post-Kantian Science (up to the 1920s) Refute Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy? The Case of Space and Geometry” for a Festschrift for Béatrice Longuenesse, edited by Stefanie Grüne and Colin Marshall, Routledge Press

“Schopenhauer and Kant on the Structural Similarity between Aesthetic and Moral Experience” 


(All presentations and talks are invited unless noted otherwise. Due to climate concerns, I have significantly cut down on air travel for purposes of talks and conferences in recent years.) 


TBA, Philosophy Colloquium, Stanford University, May 16, 2025


TBA, online lecture, Digitales Kant-Zentrum NRW, February 26, 2025


“Does Post/Kantian Science Refute Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy? The Case of Kant’s Account of Space”

- Workshop on Early Modern Philosophy and German Idealism, Syracuse University, March 30–31, 2024

- Philosophy Colloquium, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, July 19, 2023

Response to critics (Andrew Chignell, Desmond Hogan, and Pat Kitcher), Author Meets Critics Workshop at the New School for Social Research, NYC, October 5, 2023


Critical Comments on Ian Proops's The Fiery Test of Critique: A Reading of Kant's Dialectic, Author Meets Critics Workshop, Princeton University, April 22, 2023

"Against Human Exceptionalism," PACE Program, Poly High School, Long Beach, California, February 21, 2023, over Zoom 

Discussion of The World According to Kant with the Pittsburgh Kant Reading Group, December 9, 2022, over Zoom

Comments on Tyler Burge, “Kant on Primacy of Practical Reason,” The 17th Annual NYU Conference on Issues in Modern Philosophy Special Edition: Nature, Mind, Freedom — A Conference in Celebration of Béatrice Longuenesse, NYU, May 14–15, 2022

Response to critics (Lucy Allais, Marcus Kohl, and Nick Stang), Author Meets Critics Session on The World According to Kant, organized by the North American Kant Society, American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division Meeting, Baltimore, January 14, 2022

Comments on Nick Stang, “The Meta-Critique of Pure Reason: Why Kant Does Not Merely Assume the Possibility of Transcendental Philosophy,” asynchronous online conference on Kant’s fundamental assumptions, organized by Colin Marshall and Colin McLear, first week of August, 2021

“How to Be Both a Realist and an Idealist Kantian style” (different evolving versions):

- NYU Philosophy Forum, NYU, April 29, 2021

- Philosophy Colloquium, Cornell University, November 30, 2018

- Keynote Address, Creighton Club Meeting, Syracuse, November 3, 2018

- Philosophy Colloquium, Brown University, February 23, 2018

- Philosophy Colloquium, Wake Forest University, November 30, 2017

- Philosophy Thursday Night Workshop, The New School for Social Research, December 3, 2015

Comments on Thomas Hofweber, “Idealism and the Harmony of Thought and reality,” Conference on Kant and Contemporary Metaphysics, University of Toronto, April 21–22, 2018

“Finite Minds, Cognition, and Idealism in Leibniz, Kant, and beyond” (different evolving versions):

- Joint Conference of the North American Kant Society and the Society for German Idealism and Romanticism, Stanford University, October 14–15, 2017

- Philosophy Colloquium, Boston University, March 18, 2016

- New York City German Idealism Workshop, Columbia University, April 24, 2015

- Philosophy Colloquium and History of Philosophy Workshop, Johns Hopkins University, March 12, 2015

“The Labyrinth of the Continuum: Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant on the Composition of Matter” (different versions):

- Keynote Address, 7th Annual New York City Workshop in Early Modern Philosophy, Fordham University, May 13–14, 2017

- Philosophy Colloquium, Indiana University at Bloomington, February 24, 2017

- (in German) Workshop in honor of Gerold Prauss, Universität Bonn, Germany, October 14–15, 2016

“What Am I Doing? And why? A Dialogue Between Philosophy & English,” participant in a panel discussion moderated by Rebecca Newberger Goldstein, New York University, March 1, 2017

“The Next Big Step in Humanity’s Moral Progress: Animal Liberation,” Second Night of Philosophy and Ideas, Brooklyn Library, New York, January 28, 2017

Comments on Robinson and Grey’s “Tracing Reason’s Arc: The Principle of Sufficient Reason from Leibniz to Kant,” Ninth Annual Conference of the Leibniz Society of North America, The Ohio State University, October 23–25, 2015

“A Place for Monads in Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy” (different evolving versions):

- Philosophy Colloquium, New York University, September 13, 2013

- Early Modern Philosophy Workshop and German Philosophy Workshop, University of Chicago, May 17, 2013

- Philosophy Colloquium, University of California at Berkeley, April 11, 2013

“The Synthetic Nature of Geometry—Prolegomena to A(ny) Future Interpretation of Kant’s Philosophy of Mathematics,” Conference at the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh ‘Mathematics, Logic, and Method in Kant's Transcendental Philosophy’, April 13–14, 2012

“Kant’s Fictionalism and Realism about Things in Themselves” (different evolving versions):

- History of Philosophy Workshop, Harvard University, February 24, 2012

- Session of the North American Kant Society, Eastern APA, Washington D.C., December 27–30, 2011

- 45th Chapel Hill Colloquium in Philosophy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, November 4–6, 2011

- Oxford University, January 31st, 2011

“Kant’s Conception of Things in Themselves: The Two-entities View,” Workshop on Recent Work on Kant’s philosophy, University of Miami, Miami Beach, Florida, December 9–10, 2011

“The Synthetic Nature of Geometry, and the Role of Construction in Intuition,” Eleventh International Kant Congress, Pisa, Italy, May 22–26, 2010 (submitted)

“How to Think about Things in Themselves” (different evolving versions):

- Philosophy Colloquium, University of Pittsburgh, March 26, 2010

- Philosophy Colloquium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, December 4, 2009

- Philosophy Colloquium, Yale University, New Haven, December 4, 2008

“Kant on the Significance of Leibniz’s (alleged) Misconception of the Difference between Sensible and Intellectual Representations" (different versions):

- Oxford Seminar in Early Modern Philosophy, Oxford, UK, October 17–18, 2009

- Joint meeting of the North American Kant Society and the Leibniz Society of North America, University of Kentucky, Lexington, September 25–27, 2009

“Despite Appearances to the Contrary, Leibniz is Not Confused about Motion” (different versions):

- Symposium in honor of Paul Teller, University of California at Davis, October 17–18, 2008.

- New England Colloquium for Early Modern Philosophy, Harvard University, June 2005. (submitted)

“A Last Shot at Leibniz’s doctrine of the Ideality and Reducibility of Relations,” Second Annual Conference of the Leibniz Society of North America, Princeton University, September 26–28, 2008

“What Is Philosophy? Taking a Stance between Art, Science, and Religion,” Symposium in honor of Bas van Fraassen, Princeton University, May 16–18, 2008

“The Modal strength of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles,” Midwest Seminar for Early Modern Philosophy, University of Chicago, March 2007. (submitted)

Comments on Dan Garber, “In What Sense are Leibnizian Bodies Extended?,” The Third NYU Conference on Issues in Modern Philosophy “Understanding Space and Time,” New York University, November 10–11, 2006.

Comments on Andrew Chignell, “Kant and the Kinds of Knowledge,” North American Kant Society, Central APA, Chicago, April 2006.

“Kant’s Critique of Leibniz,” Conference on Kant and the Early Moderns, Princeton University, May 2004

“Kant on Space” (different versions):

- Philosophy Colloquium, University of Kentucky, April 2004

- Philosophy Colloquium, University of Illinois at Chicago, March 2004

“Can a Philosophical Position Consist in a Stance?”, Symposium on Bas van Fraassen, The Empirical Stance, Pacific APA, Pasadena, March 2004

“Chirality and Transcendental Idealism,” Boston Colloquium for Philosophy of Science, Boston University Center for Philosophy and History of Science, November 2003

“The Many Functions of Intuition in Kant and What to Do with Them,” Symposium on Kant’s philosophy of mathematics sponsored by the Association of Symbolic Logic, Eastern APA, Philadelphia, December 2002

“The Solitary Hand–Kant on Incongruent Counterparts and the Nature of Space”:

- Columbia University, February 2002

- Duke University, February 2002

- New York University, February 2002

- Yale University, January 2002

- University of Notre Dame, January 2002

- University of Wisconsin at Madison, January 2002

“Kant’s Philosophy of Space and Time and Modern Science (up to the 1920s),” History of Philosophy of Science (HOPOS) 2000 Conference, Vienna, Austria, July 2000 (submitted)

Scholarships, Grants, and Honors

NYU Center for the Humanities Faculty Fellowship (2022–2023)

Fellow of the NYU Society of Fellows (2019–2020)

Travel grant from the Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts at the University of Notre Dame to attend the XI. International Kant Congress in Italy (2010)

Mrs. Giles Whiting Honorific Fellowship in the Humanities, Princeton University (2001–2002)

Dissertation Fellowship, Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes (German National Merit Foundation) (1999–2001)

Fellowship for Studies Abroad (USA), Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD – German Academic Exchange Service) (1998–1999)

Santa Fe Institute Summer School for Complex Systems (1998)

Fellowship for Studies Abroad (USA), Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes (1997–1998)

Graduate Tuition Fellowship, Princeton University (1997–2001)

Fellowship for Studies Abroad (UK), DAAD (1995–1996)

Fellow of the Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes (1993–1998)

Other Professional Activities

Co-Editor of Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophy (2022–present)

Co-Director of the Society for Women in Philosophy-New York City [SWIP-NYC] (2020–present)

Member of the program committee for the Eastern APA meetings in 2020 in Philadelphia, and 2021 over Zoom

Member of the program committee for the Central APA meeting in 2012 in Chicago

Member of the Executive Board of the Leibniz Society of North America (2010–2014)

Referee for Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, Epoché, Journal of the History of Philosophy, Kantian Review, Leibniz Review, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, Atlantic Canada Seminar in Early Modern Philosophy, the German National Merit Foundation, and the National Science Foundation


Undergraduate Courses

Introductory: Introduction to Philosophy; Honors Introduction to Philosophy; Honors Humanities Seminar I, from the Greeks to the Renaissance; Honors Humanities Seminar II, from the Renaissance to the Present; Texts and Ideas: ‘What is a good human life?’; Great Works in Philosophy

Intermediate: A Brief History of Space, Time, and Motion; History of Modern Philosophy; Existentialism and Phenomenology

Advanced: Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art; Kant, Critique of Pure Reason; Rationalism (Descartes, Malebranche, Spinoza, Leibniz); Animal Ethics; Philosophy of Religion; Kant and Environmental Ethics (directed study)

Graduate Courses

History of the Philosophy of Science; Kant’s Philosophy of the Supersensible; Kant’s Early Critics; Kant and the Exact Sciences; Locke and Leibniz; Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation; Advanced Introduction to Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason; Kant’s Critique of Judgment; Leibniz’s Metaphysics; Compassion in the History of Ethics; Advanced Introduction to Aesthetics; Kant on Erkenntnis; Evil in the History of Philosophy; Nietzsche (directed study); Wittgenstein and Idealism (directed study)

Doctoral Thesis Supervision

Banafsheh Beizaei, The Epistemological Reading of Transcendental Idealism: A New Outline and Defense, NYU 2023

Brian Watkins, Good Taste: Pleasure and Practice in Kant’s Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, Notre Dame, 2010 (co-director with Karl Ameriks)

Joseph Zapeda, The Problem of the Vacuum in the Rationalist Tradition, Notre Dame, 2009 (co-director with Karl Ameriks)

Dissertation Committee Member

Carl Christian Abrahamsen, Project on the role of the representation of infinity in the representation of finite objects in Descartes, Leibniz, and Hegel, NYU ongoing

Iliana Gioulatou, Project in Aesthetics, on Susanne Langer and kinetic sculpture, NYU, ongoing

Ariel Melamedoff, Project on Mary Shepherd’s metaphysics of causation, NYU, ongoing

Alan Barat, Project on Nietzsche and will to power, NYU, ongoing

Caroline Bowman, Hegel on Internal and External Freedom―A Reading of the Philosophy of Right, NYU, 2023

Jenny Judge, Pictures of Feeling: Music, Meaning, and Social Life, NYU, 2022

Jake McNulty, Logic and Metaphysics in Hegel's Mature Theoretical Philosophy, Columbia University, 2019 (external reader)

Vera Flocke, Ontological Expressivism, NYU, 2019

Tyke Nunez, Kant’s Formal Idealism, the Synthetic a priori, and the Constitution of Objects of Experience, Pittsburgh, 2015

Brandon Fogel, Epistemolgy of a Theory of Everything: Weyl, Einstein, and the Unification of Physics, Notre Dame, 2008

Brian Pitts, General Covariance, Artificial Gauge Freedom, and Empirical Equivalence, Notre Dame, 2008

Daniel McKaughan, Toward a Richer Vocabulary for Epistemic Attitudes, Notre Dame, 2007


German (native), English, Latin, French (reading), Ancient Greek (a bit rusty)


                                                                                                                                        Last updated: Summer 2024

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